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ABOUT

HIV

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KNOW

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ABOUT

HIV

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AIDS stands for “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome”. It is caused by a virus called “Human Immunodeficiency Virus”, or HIV.


HIV is incapable of causing direct symptoms, but once the virus enters the body through blood vessels, they will begin to attack the “T4 Lymphocytes” (white blood cells and macrophages) reside within the immune system, weakening the immune system’s ability to self-repair. Meanwhile, some harmless disease such as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), which normally do not affect healthy person, begins their infection and thus turning HIV positive individual into AIDS patient. Currently there are no definitive effective cure that can completely eradicate HIV virus, yet several adopted treatments have greatly expand AIDS patients life expectancy and quality of life.


HIV exists within the carrier’s bodily fluids, such as semen, blood and vaginal prostate secretory, which the infected person can infect other person through bodily fluid transmission. Besides, the virus count of HIV exists in saliva, sweat, tears and urine are insignificant to cause infection. An person living with HIV may not have any initial symptoms and they cannot be identified by any external features, therefore only through HIV screening test we can confirm whether a person has been infected.

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Common Symptoms

Common Symptoms

Prevention

Prevention

Testing

Testing

Treatment

Treatment

At the early stage of infection, an infected person may experience:
Flu-like symptoms
Fever
Weight loss
Fatigue
Swollen glands

There can also be no symptom at all.


- Use condoms properly and practicing safer sex is one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of infection
- Maintain sexual relationship with only one uninfected partner.
- Never share syringe or personal items such as razor or toothbrush.
- Use disposable or sterilized skin piercing equipment and follow standard hygiene precautions during acupuncture or tattooing.
- Wear disposable gloves before in contact with blood.
- PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) and PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis): PrEP and PEP are effective additional measures alongside other HIV prevention tools if administered correctly. Please see our fact sheets on PrEP and PEP for more information on their use.


Testing is the only way to determine one’s HIV status. 
In AIDS Concern’s testing service, we use the p24 Combo HIV rapid test, which can detect SOME new HIV cases within 15-28 days after infection. However, as it cannot detect all new HIV infections within this period, we suggest people can also get tested 90 days after suspected infection may have happened to be sure of one’s HIV status. The test is free, confidential and anonymous and comes with pre- and post-test counselling. Results are known in 20 minutes.


Infected with HIV does not equivalent to immediate medication treatment. Physicians will base on the HIV virus count and T4 cell count to prescribe medication. At this moment, there is no definitive effective cure for AIDS, however, there are adopted treatments available to reduce the level of the virus inside the body, thus it is possible to postpone the development of AIDS and from other bacteria, and improve the AIDS patient’s health and quality of life. Once started, HIV medication treatment are life term(life long) and HIV patients will have to return to his physician or clinic for regular follow up to check the progress and make necessary modificaiton in the treatment.

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ABOUT STI

ABOUT

STI

  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Genital Herpes
  • Genital Warts
  • Pubic Lice
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

1. What is it?

Syphilis is caused by a type of spirochaete bacteria. A painless sore (called a chancre) appears at the site of infection approximately 10-90 days after contact. Typically the sore appears near the sexual organ, but sometimes it can be discovered at less noticeable body parts. Whether it’s been treated or not, the sore will be healed naturally, yet the bacteria are still lurking inside the body.

2. What are the main routes of transmission?

Syphilis is transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected sex partner.

3. How soon will symptoms appear?

Approx. 21 days

4. What are the symptoms?

A painless sore (called a chancre) appears at the site of infection approximately shortly after contact. Typically the sore appears near the sexual organ, but sometimes it can be discovered at less noticeable body parts. Within a few weeks symptoms of secondary syphilis develops, such as fever, malaise, enlarged lymph glands, non-itchy rash at the palm of the hand and sole of the foot. These symptoms eventually subside but the infection will go on to a latent stage. Organs like the heart, eye, bones and central nervous system may be damaged by the bacteria, resulting in blindness, cardiovascular diseases, neurological and mental illness, physical disability or even death.

5. Is it curable?

Yes, at any time during the first two stages, syphilis can be treated with a completed course of antibiotic. Afterwards you must have blood tests to ensure full recovery. Do not have sex until two weeks after the antibiotic treatment. The period of treatment for tertiary syphilis may be longer.


1. What is it?

The disease is caused by the bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae.It may infect the anal canal or oropharynx during anal and oral sex, and may present as mucopurulent anal discharge or sore throat respectively.

2. What are the main routes of transmission?

It is commonly spread by having sex (oral sex, anal sex or vaginal sex) with an infected partner.

3. How soon will symptoms appear?

2-3 Days.

4. What are the symptoms?

The common symptoms are burning sensation while peeing, thick copious purulent milk-like or yellow-green pus discharge from the urethra.

5. Is it curable?

Gonorrhea could be cured with ntibiotics.


1. What is it?

Genital Herpes, caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type II (HSV II), usually affects the surface of genital area. Although the skin surface would appear to be healed, yet the disease can remain latent in the nerve ganglion and around 50-80% of patients are liable to relapse.

2. What are the main routes of transmission?

The disease can be passed on from blisters and sores to your sex partner by direct contact, including kissing when you have sores around the mouth. Sometimes, patients with no obvious symptom could also be able to infect others.

3. How soon will symptoms appear?

5 to 21 days

4. What are the symptoms?

Symptoms include itchiness, pain, and small blisters ranging from pinhead size to green bean size that soon ruptures in 3 to 4 days, leaving erosions with translucent fluid. The lesions often heal within 10 days if there is no other infection. Some patients may also suffer from generalized symptoms such as fever, malaise, muscle ache, joint pain and appearance of lymph glands in the groin.

5. Is it curable?

Patients cannot be recoverd but some medication can help to reduce the symptoms gradually.


1. What is it?

Genital Herpes, caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type II (HSV II), usually affects the surface of genital area. Although the skin surface would appear to be healed, yet the disease can remain latent in the nerve ganglion and around 50-80% of patients are liable to relapse.

2. What are the main routes of transmission?

Sexual organs or anus are in contact with venereal warts

3. How soon will symptoms appear?

It would take a several weeks to six months or longer for symptoms to appear.

4. What are the symptoms?

One of the common symptoms of Genital Warts are flesh-colored, soft-to-the-touch bumps on the skin of the genital area and around the anus, gradually these bumps will cluster and form a kind of “cauliflower” appearance. These bumps can cause mild bleeding, irritation and infection due to itchiness.

5. Is it curable?

At this moment Genital Warts cannot be cured completely, yet it can be contained through proper treatment. The treatment includes liquid nitrogen freezing, laser or ablation surgery.


1. What is it?

Pubic lice is a parasite that infects the hairy parts of the body.

2. What are the main routes of transmission?

Infection is transmitted through direct contact during sexual intercourse, or less commonly through close contact, like the sharing of common bathing costumes, blankets and lavatories.

3. How soon will symptoms appear?

It would take up to 1 month for symptoms to appear.

4. What are the symptoms?

Intense itching in the affected areas especially during nighttime; Skin rashes, pimples, bloody scab or sky-blue spots developed on pubic area;
Rusty colored powder or Black powdery droppings from the lice in your underwear;
Brown oval ovum discovered on pubic hair or other body hair.

5. Is it curable?

Pubic lice cannot be completely eradicated by shaving the pubic and anal area. Yet Pubic lice are best treated with a prescription wash compound containing permethrin, such as Elimite or Kwell.


1. What is it?

Hepatitis is inflammation of liver caused by a number of viruses.

2. What are the main routes of transmission?

It is transmitted by sexual contact or sharing injection instruments with an infected person, transfusion of infected blood or blood product.

3. How soon will symptoms appear?

It would normally take 40 to 160 days for symtoms to appear.

4. What are the symptoms?

Infection with hepatitis virus may result in a series of symptoms such as tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, yellowing of eye sclera and tea-colored urine, or the patient may not show any symptoms at all.

5. Is it curable?

Currently there is no definitive effective cure for hepatitis B, yet there is adopted medication to combat against hepatitis B virus. After the treatment it’s possible to lower the level of virus below detectable threshold.


1. What is it?

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small RNA virus that causes liver damage. Like hepatitis B carriers, some hepatitis C carriers develop chronic hepatitis, liver scarring or liver cancer.

2. What are the main routes of transmission?

Hepatitis C is spread in a similar way as hepatitis B, mainly through blood contact by:
sharing needles or 'works' when shooting drugs,
needlesticks injuries or sharps exposures on the job,
vertical transmission from an infected mother to her baby during labour.
Less commonly, a person can get Hepatitis C infection via sexual contact. The risk increases among men who have sex with men, for those who have sexually transmitted infection, engage in rough sex, or are infected with HIV.

3. How soon will symptoms appear?

It would normally take 6 to 9 weeks for symtoms to appear.

4. What are the symptoms?

A majority of people infected with HCV do not have symptoms or signs. If symptoms and signs occur, they are indistinguishable from those of hepatitis A or hepatitis B virus infections, such as tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, yellowing of eye sclera and tea-colored urine.

5. Is it curable?

Drugs, such as Interferon, Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin, can be used to treat the infection.